Male infertility: what is it and how to treat it
Demographers are sounding the alarm: over the last few years, Russia has experienced natural population decline: more people die than are born. One of the reasons of fertility decline was aggravated the problem of sterility are unable to have children for about 15% of couples. Including the cause of male infertility, which they say is much less likely than the female. Representatives of the strong half of humanity is less likely to undergo appropriate examinations and care less about fertility health. And as it has appeared, absolutely in vain.
Population growth in Russia
In recent years, Russia is characterised by natural population decline: the death rate exceeds the birth rate. The greatest the difference was in 2000 (then “lost” almost 1 million people), then the situation began to level off. In 2017, however, this figure began to grow: the death rate exceeded the birth rate by 134 000 people. Experts point out that today the main source of population growth is migration, and the birth rate exceeds the death rate only in the regions of the Caucasus.
The infertility problem comes to the fore
A few years ago, academician Vladimir Kulakov (who was then the chief obstetrician-gynecologist of Russia) said that 6 million women and 4 million men in Russia are not able to have children. It is about 15% of couples, and that this threshold who considers critical to national security. Further increase in the number of childless couples significantly reduces the population of the state.
Men are not ready to learn about the diagnosis of “infertility”
It has long been observed that if pregnancy does not occur, women are the first to go for tests to determine the causes. Men, it seems, do not entertain the idea that they may be unable to conceive. Researchers from the University of California (USA) in cooperation with a leading specialist in the field of men’s health-Dr. Paul Turek conducted a special survey. The results showed that men with a diagnosis of “infertility” have a serious sexual, personal and social problems. The kind that are commonly found in patients with cancer.
The types of infertility
Male infertility is divided into primary and secondary. Primary – these are the cases when a particular male never had children. Secondary – these are the times when the man was already a father, and the last case of conception is not more than 3 years ago.
Physiological causes of infertility can also be very different from violations of the processes of maturation of spermatozoa (few of them, they are inactive, etc.) to immunological response when the body recognizes the sperm as foreign cells and destroys them.
The main causes of infertility in men
The main reasons causing male infertility are:
- innate characteristics of the development of the reproductive system
- genetic diseases
- endocrine disorders
- infectious diseases
- varicocele (varicose veins of the scrotum)
- administration of various drugs (including antibiotics and aspirin), as well as chemotherapy
- bad habits
- erectile dysfunction and other
Diagnosis of male infertility
Many people think that to survey the man need to undergo a semen analysis. But this analysis can only identify this issue. Causes of male infertility is established after a comprehensive examination, which includes:
- analysis to identify sexually transmitted infections
- Ultrasound of the pelvic organs
- hormonal examination
This is the “minimum program”, which the man must pass in order for the doctor to determine the cause of infertility and could be treatment program.
Treatment of male infertility
Treatment of male infertility is the result of their surveys. Often hormonal medication, antibiotics (in case of inflammatory diseases, infections), surgical treatment (for varicocele). Are treated not only fairly rare cases in which men are no sperm.
Assisted reproductive technologies for male infertility
Most often we used to talk about IVF and other assisted reproductive technologies in relation to women. However, the indication for their use is and male infertility. For example, if the seminal fluid of men has no sperm (azoospermia), it is conception possible through IVF or ICSI (oocyte insemination). In this case, the sperm is obtained directly by biopsy of the testicle.