Pneumonia: useful data for saving life. Interview with pulmonologist

Estimated Children’s Fund United Nations (UNICEF), child pneumonia annually kills 1.4 million children under the age of 5 in the world. Most of them are kids with congenital heart defects, immunosuppression (immunosuppression), premature infants. All about pneumonia in an interview with the pulmonologist Sergei Simonov.


FACTevery year pneumonia kills 1.4 million children under the age of 5 years and is the leading cause of death of minors across the world.

Sergei Simonov of decentrality of Phthisiology and pulmonology of the National medical Academy of postgraduate education named after P. L. Shupyk.

Large Ukrainian scientist and physician-pulmonologist. Since 2009 till now works at the National medical Academy of postgraduate education im. After p. L. Shupyk, Department of Phthisiology and pulmonology, associate Professor.

Has aceounting of candidate of medical Sciences, specialty pulmonology state award, Honored doctor of Ukraine.

In 2014 he was awarded the academic title of associate Professor of Department of Phthisiology and pulmonology.

His scientific activity is connected with the study of major issues of pulmonology and modern methods of treatment.

What is pneumonia?

Pneumonia or pneumonia is an acute illness of infectious nature, which affects the lungs (lung tissue). The lungs consist of the lung tissue (alveoli) and the bronchial tubes. So, pneumonia is an inflammation of the alveoli, bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchi.

If the inflammatory process in the lungs not caused by infection, the condition is called pulmonia. The chemical chemical damage to the lungs, with radiation, radiation, trauma, traumatic pulmonic etc.

What pneumonia is different from bronchitis? How to diagnose pneumonia?

Pneumonia is an inflammation occurring in the alveolar section of the lung, accompanied by accumulation of exudate (inflammatory fluid) in the alveoli (air balls), in which gas exchange occurs. So, in pneumonia no gas exchange in the inflamed sites does not occur, because the lung balloons are filled with inflammatory fluid. Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial mucosa vozduhoprovodyaschih part of the lungs. Thus, in bronchitis and pneumonia, the infection and inflammation occurs in different places.

Symptoms of pneumonia

The symptoms of these diseases may differentiate (distinguish) only a doctor, because and in that and in other case there is an increase in body temperature, cough with separation of mucous-purulent or even purulent mucus, feeling short of breath, symptoms of intoxication. To distinguish them is quite hard even after examination by a physician. An accurate diagnosis can only help the x-ray light. Inflammation of the lungs on radiographs (picture) are defined foci of infiltration, and bronchitis it is not.

What symptoms can be suspected pneumonia?

After a survey and examination of the patient, the doctor may suggest pneumonia based on the presence of the following symptoms:

  • cough. It can be dry or with sputum (mucopurulent or purulent). A very disturbing symptom is the detection of sputum even streaks of blood. These symptoms, in any case can not hide from the doctor, even if it was once. When there is blood in the sputum it is necessary to make the lungs. Experience shows that this symptom patients are very often attributed to bleeding from the gums or nose, and as a result missed the time;
  • the increase in body temperature;
  • chest pain on the left or right under the scapula when breathing and/or coughing very typical, although not necessarily, a symptom of pneumonia. Chest pain when breathing typical of bronchitis, although it is not 100% symptom;
  • feelings of lack of air, which is common to both diseases: bronchitis and pneumonia.

Bronchitis in children

    What are the pneumonia?

    Modern classification divides pneumonia depending on the circumstances and place of infection of the patient:

    1. community-acquired pneumonia if the patient became infected at home, at work, in transport, etc., i.e., an infection normal microbial inhabitants of the nasopharynx;
    2. nosocomial pneumonia if the patient were infected and became ill with pneumonia after a few days spent in the hospital. Before such pneumonia called hospital, but this term is not always calm was seen, so was replaced by an absolutely identical in fact;
    3. aspiration pneumonia when the patient is showing clear signs of microaspiration loss of consciousness, injury, etc;.
    4. pneumonia in patients with severe immunodeficiencies. I want to emphasize that patients with pneumonia with the usual decrease in immunity due to the Chernobyl accident, ecology, etc., do not belong to this category and are treated on the General principles of treatment of this disease.

    See also:WHEEZING IN the CHEST

    Who often suffers from pneumonia?

    Unfortunately, ill with pneumonia can all: people of all age and all social statuses. But risk factors are:

    • age:pneumonia more common in young children and the elderly. The older the age, the greater the likelihood of Contracting pneumonia and a worse prognosis. Why in the world are older is recommended to get vaccinated as flu and pneumococcal and Haemophilus infections.

    Is it possible to cure pneumonia on your own at home? What is she dangerous?

    Pneumonia is a disease which under any circumstances cannot be treated independently. This requires the high art of the doctor, great professional experience and competent application of modern antibiotics. Advertised in the press and on television flu are often only symptomatic drugs that only ease the symptoms of a disease, but does not affect the outcome. Some patients with pneumonia can resolve on its own (without treatment), but most lead to residual phenomena violating disabled, or even on the brink of life and death. On the other hand, there are a number of safe and effective modern antibiotics allows the physician to successfully treat most pneumonia patients at home if they were provided with appropriate care.

    After some time, recovery begins with proper treatment of pneumonia? What determines the speed of recovery?

    The speed of recovery depends on the General condition of the patient, as we are talking status. There are 2 common misconceptions about modern antibiotics:

    1. Effective antibiotics speed up the recovery? In fact, they provide a favorable prognosis. The timing of recovery in recent years has not changed. They averaged 21 days (patients with a sufficient level of immunity 10 days, people with immunodeficiency to 2-3 months). But this does not mean that the whole of this period the patient must take antibiotics from group of semisynthetic penicillins (resorption). The latter are appointed by the course, and after their cancellation just need to give the body time to create the conditions for recovery.
    2. Injectable antibiotics more effective? No. Under normal condition of the gastrointestinal tract antibacterial drugs for oral administration as highly effective.


    How to prevent pneumonia?

    Prevention of pneumonia is primarily the hardening. To the lungs has occurred inflammation you need 3 things:

    1. to infection (bacteria, viruses, etc.) get into the lungs;
    2. to number of these microorganisms was big enough;
    3. to decreased protective forces of an organism.

    The infection enters the lungs many people, but most of them are not causes inflammation of the lungs, because the protective forces of the body at a sufficient level. If the person tolerates changes in temperature, supercooling, the probability of pneumonia is getting smaller, although not eliminated.

    A sufficient level of immunity provides nutrition.

    To avoid contact with persons who have obvious signs of colds, the so-called ARI.

    If You own ARI, it must be a sign of mandatory preventive bed rest, because infection of the respiratory tract dramatically reduces the protective properties of the lungs.

    What symptoms can be suspected pneumonia after suffering acute respiratory disease?

    If you have colds, so-called OCR, then after 3 days all symptoms of the disease are on the decline and start to improve. If not, and new symptoms appear this is very suspicious on the accession of bacterial complications (pneumonia, inflammation of the sinuses, etc.). You need to pay attention to:

    • increased sputum gnoynista;
    • the appearance of pain when breathing and coughing, the so-called pleural pain. Lung tissue itself has no pain receptors. Pain arises only in the case when the pleura is involved, rich in pain receptors, what happens in pneumonia;
    • the feeling of lack of air;
    • prominent by frequent and shallow breathing.

    The appearance of the above symptoms should immediately consult the doctor in time to begin treatment with modern antibacterial drugs. Multiple studies have shown that early initiation of therapy already held the inflammation of the lungs more efficiently and to improve the prognosis. But on the other hand, prophylactic administration of antibiotics is pointless and not recommended, not only here, but throughout the world.

    Interview prepared by Oksana Nedzelsky