Facial Expressions: Communication Without Words

Für is the communication with humans and for some animals it is indispensable. It is worth the Gegenüabout a closer look in the face

Schön fröugly: Läsmile is a positive Signal to the environment. No wonder we lächelnde people like to watch

On the post card to the Türe läsmile England’s heir to the throne Prince William and his wife Kate to the bet. Eva Bänninger-Huber, Professor für Clinical psychology at the Universität Innsbruck and expert für facial expression research, got the card from colleagues from Oxford. An exciting object of study to the facial Expressions of the Lächelns, as you will find. Because those who look closer, ­notes: The royals don’t seem ­relaxed, but tense. "What are the two to show facial Expressions, with a real Läto tun&quot smile a little;, B&auml says;nninger-Huber.

The human facial Expressions – those fine movements of the facial muscles, which we use to Gefüto give missing expression – is a part of your Forschungs­area. As a communication system, Facial expression is quite complex – and at the same time something like the first language we learn people, says the Innsbruck psychologist.

"Facial expressions gehört of the most important Kommunika­equipment, particularly where the words are missing. About between the mother and the child." A Baby may initially &uuml only;about wines, but also über Läsmile and other Gesichtsausdrücke with the parents communicate.

How facial Expressions work

The second thing man learns comfortable with these first lessons in the native language, facial Expressions: With the right facial expression you can control the behavior of other people. Läsmiles the Baby, läthe mother zur&uuml smiles;ck and beschädeals probably will work intensively with the child – at least für a short while. Also später is a Läsmile is a kind offer, mit­ei­to contact each other in a relationship.

How the language of facial Expressions works, but is still längst not in the Individual entschlüstored encrypted. The first scientific investigations took place in the 19th century. Century, Guillaume Duchenne. With electric current – at the time, medical high-tech – the franz&ouml teased;sian doctor, and various facial muscles, and held the resulting Gesichtsausdrücke photographer.

Muscle of joy discovered

A Realization: Für a Läsmile, be real, are several muscles is necessary. The "Zygomaticus major", draws the angle of the mouth upwards. Him Duchenne called the "Muscle of the Freude". But also the äußEUA Augenring­muscle, responsible für the Ent­the emergence of Lachfältchen, is in the ­Use.

Under a "Duchenne ­Lächeln" experts understand since then, a spontaneous, genuine Läsmile. "In the case of a Läsmile are the ­Eyes, however, not beteiligt", expert B&auml says;nninger-Huber.

Monkey ärgern für research

According to Duchenne, beschäCharles Darwin worked on the facial Expressions. In the book "The expression of the Gemüthsbewegungen the people and the Thieren" he described how he ­a monkey to pull an offended Pout: He was "this mürrisch been made by him to an Orange and then took out hatte".

The researchers repeated this Experiment with his own children – watching: In the expression of the enttäuschten hope, man and monkey äsimilar to the offended relatives.

Today weiß man, that Darwin was with this approach to research properly. Dogs, cats, or horses also have a mimic Repertoire,  they use not only to communicate with conspecifics, but also with the people.

Faces are no open Bücher

130 years after Darwin it is, however, still far away, to read in the faces of others, as in an open book. Jörg, Merten, emotion psychologist and ­außerplanmäßiger Professor at the Universität of the Saarland, has long conducted research on facial Expressions. Today he passes on his Knowledge in seminars.

Once a woman who wanted to learn was among the participants to recognize the facial Expressions, whether Mämen are serious with your. "Science must entt&auml such hopes unfortunately;uschen", says Merten.

Gefühle trüben the judgment

Although there is now good Möways to describe the human facial Expressions in their movement sequence. The Interpretation was, however, "a very difficult Geschäft".

Because even if every weiß, that of itself will not be on other schließshould s, this is what happens when you try Gesichtsausdrüto read cke. Someone wants to judge based on facial Expressions, such as the Gesprächspartner be fühlt, hängt the Einschäup especially of the own Gefühlslage.

Categorization of Gesichtsausdrücover

In the 1970s, was developed in the United States a method to Gesichtsausdrüto capture cke objective. All the visible movements of the mimic muscles are assigned to units, so-called Action Units. The "Facial Action Coding System" FACS includes tens of different types of motor units, from the Lift of the eyebrow to the Lips. So movements in the face can be described as a kind of Alphabet.

The basics of FACS today come in a variety of sectors, in which it comes to facial Expressions. In the economy, for example, the coding system is to help in geschäft­­negotiations more üabout the intentions of the Gegenüto learn bers.

In the film industry, Software helps on the Basis of FACS, the ­Facial expressions of cartoon characters möto make as possible alive. Based on FACS au&szlig to;moreover, Algorithms can be trained, so that the robot can recognize human facial Expressions better and suggest köcan.

Communication with dementia

At the Universität Bamberg, it is ­used to provide patients with Alzheimer’s dementia medical better. "Facial expressions are not more people with dementia for a long time, even if you spoke well ausdrücover können", Stefan says, according to Bacher, Professor für Physiological psychology.

But für PflegekräRTD does not understand such signals. For example, if tooth pain the Zähneputzen to an ordeal. "The patient then faces, are restless and ver­search maybe, the Pflege­power wegzu­stoßen", erklärt expert, according to Bacher.

A silent cry for help in pain

However, instead of a pain using the patient’s get something to ­­Calming. Thus, they may be quiet, but. A "terrible Vorstellung", finds, according to Bacher. With an international team of researchers he has, therefore, a questionnaire für PflegekräRTD developed, in order to mimic signals für pain better
to interpret köcan.

Seven units of movement in the ­Face h&auml in pain especially;often prior to. For example, the together of the eyebrows or gritted Z&auml pull;hne. But only together with other facial movements, the mimic Signal f&uuml results;r pain.

"This is a bit like Scrabble. We have the letters, but we müshoot find out what you have in different combinations bedeuten", so, according to Bacher.

Together with the Fraunhofer Institute in Erlangen, psychologists, and computer scientists are now working on a System that the Gesichtsausdrücke demented patients analyzed. Using küartificial intelligence to the symptoms of pain right &ndash recognize; even then, when no nurses in the NäHey.

Limits küartificial intelligence

But our facial Expressions brings machines quickly reach their limits. To genügen a couple of wrinkles. "A man has üno Problem at all to recognize whether wrinkles &ndash caused by a facial expression; or üin General have nothing to do with the facial Expressions, but there are, because it’s ­a äolder people handelt", says, according to Bacher. A robot würde confuse the pretty. People read human faces well still the best.

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